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Welcome to Toxinome
Bacterial toxin database

Protein toxins are key molecular weapons in biology that are used to destroy neighboring cells. Bacteria use protein toxins to kill or inhibit growth of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells using various modes of action that target essential cellular components, such as nuecleic acids, the translation machinery, cell wall, and cell membrane. The toxins are responsible for shaping microbiomes and for severe infectious diseases of animals and plants. Toxinome is a comprehensive and updated bacterial protein toxin database that contains toxins from various resources and classes. Toxinome includes a total of 2 million known toxins encoded by 59,475 bacterial genomes across the tree of life. It includes gene-related and protein-related information of toxins, and bacterial immunity proteins that inhibit toxin function. The Toxinome resource can be freely used by the academic non-profit research community interested in bacterial toxins and can guide toxin discovery and function elucidation, and infectious disease diagnosis. Users from commercial organizations are requested to contact Dr. Asaf Levy from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: alevy at

Genes Table:
genome ID: Unique ID of a given genome in the IMG database
Scaffold: DNA contig name where a given eCIS locus is found
IMG Gene ID : Unique ID of each gene in the IMG database
Protein Start Coordinate: Where the protein begins (nucleotide position on a given scaffold)
Protein End Coordinate: Where the protein ends (nucleotide position on a given scaffold)
Pfam Start Coordinate: Where the pfam begins (nucleotide position on a given gene)
Pfam End Coordinate: Where the proteinn ends (nucleotide position on a given sgene)
Product Name: Which molecular product the gene produces
Length (aa): Length of the listed protein in amino acid residues
Pfams: Known domains within the gene
Tox/Anti-Tox: Gene toxicity evaluation - Tox = toxic activity within the gene, Anti-Tox = anti toxic activity within the gene
Source: source of the domain function within the gene
Cluster: cluster id based on toxinome clustering with the following parameters: threshold = 0.7, alignment coverage = 0.92 using the CD-HIT 4.8.1 software (Li and Godzik 2006).

Pfams Table:
Pfam ID: Unique domain id from PFAM external database
Pfam Name: Pfam name from PFAM external database
Domain: pfam's domain annotation: toxic/immunity/None
Start Coordinate: Where the pfam begins (amino acid position on a given gene)
End Coordinate: Where the pfam ends (amino acid position on a given gene)
Length: Length of the listed domain in amino acid residues

By clicking Advanced Search you can search the DB based on product name, organism name, pfam id and pfam name and their combinations
For searching by homolog sequences based on your own protein sequence please check Find Homologues button and provide your email and the protein sequence